In 2015, the strictest emission standards for off-road diesel engines of all power classes became official. They are building slowly; Level 1 regulations were first introduced in the mid-1990s. Moreover, the interim level 4 standards were seen from 2008 to 2011 for engines of varying power. Today, Tier 4 Final Engines (as they know them in America) are here – and they apply to much of Europe.
Heavy equipment manufacturers place their diesel engines in the various cylinder after treatment components as exhaust to meet these new emission standards. Furthermore, these latest standards for EPA engines have successfully reduced emissions and reduced the carbon footprint of the construction sector. Their primary purpose is to reduce emissions of two main pollutants into the atmosphere significantly. In addition, these are particulate matter (soot and other unburned hydrocarbons) and nitrogen oxides (an essential component of smog).
However, they also make the production of the machine more expensive and thus the price of the machine. But new heavy equipment manufacturers, such as CASE, are seizing the opportunity to design Tier 4 Finals that meet the requirements while delivering more power and performance and up to 5% more fuel-efficient than Tier 3, which overcompensates overhead.
To better understand what is happening in line with current requirements, we’ve outlined the significant changes to the Level 4 engine below (although some of these items are common, you don’t have to use them on every computer).
Tier 4 Final Engines
- First, they come with a factory-installed diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) or diesel particulate filter (DPF)
- Contain a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit to cut drastically cut nitrogen oxides
- Then, they have an open crankcase ventilation (OCV) filter that captures and controls crankcase emissions
- Use ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and CJ-4 oil that reduces ash deposit
- Run recirculated exhaust gas through a cooler and typically have larger cooling systems
- Have multiple fuel injection capabilities and advanced fuel injection systems
- Include new engine control modules that more effectively monitor and control engine operating parameters
- Achieve optimum combustion with improved combustion bowl geometry
- Contain high-durability ferrous cast ductile (FCD) pistons
- Have a variable geometry turbocharger for better airflow control at all operating speeds and loads
- Finally, they necessitate some additional switches and dash lights operators must become familiar with